Clustering Example with Gaussian Mixture in Python

   The Gaussian Mixture is a probabilistic model to represent a mixture of multiple Gaussian distributions on population data. The model is widely used in clustering problems. The Scikit-learn API provides the GaussianMixture class to implement Gaussian Mixture model. 

    In this tutorial, you'll briefly learn how to cluster data by using Scikit Gaussian Mixture class in Python. The tutorial covers:

  1. Preparing data.
  2. Clustering with Gaussian Mixture
  3. Source code listing
We'll start by loading the required modules.


from sklearn.mixture import GaussianMixture
from sklearn.datasets.samples_generator import make_blobs
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from numpy import random 
from pandas import DataFrame 
 


Preparing data

First, we'll create simple clustering data for this tutorial and visualize it in a plot.


random.seed(234)
x, _ = make_blobs(n_samples=330, centers=5, cluster_std=1.84)
plt.figure(figsize=(8, 6))
plt.scatter(x[:,0], x[:,1])
plt.show() 



Clustering with Gaussian Mixture

   Next, we'll define the Gaussian Mixture model and fit it on x data. You can set target cluster number in n_components parameter. Here, we'll divide data into 5 clusters. You can also change other default parameters based on your data and clustering approach.


gm = GaussianMixture(n_components=5).fit(x)
 
gm.get_params() 

{'covariance_type': 'full',
'init_params': 'kmeans',
'max_iter': 100,
'means_init': None,
'n_components': 5,
'n_init': 1,
'precisions_init': None,
'random_state': None,
'reg_covar': 1e-06,
'tol': 0.001,
'verbose': 0,
'verbose_interval': 10,
'warm_start': False,
'weights_init': None} 

After fitting the model we can obtain centers of each cluster. 


centers = gm.means_
print(centers)

[[-5.55710852  3.87061249]
[ 8.08308692 9.17642055]
[-9.18419799 -4.47855075]
[-0.89184344 0.17602145]
[ 7.31671999 2.46693378]] 
  

Taken centers can be visualized in a plot as follows.


plt.figure(figsize=(8, 6))
plt.scatter(x[:,0], x[:,1], label="data")
plt.scatter(centers[:,0], centers[:,1],c='r', label="centers")
plt.legend()
plt.show() 
 

 

We predict x data with trained model to identify each elements target center. Below code shows how group elements and visualize the clusters in a plot.

 
pred = gm.predict(x)

df = DataFrame({'x':x[:,0], 'y':x[:,1], 'label':pred})
groups = df.groupby('label')

ig, ax = plt.subplots()
for name, group in groups:
    ax.scatter(group.x, group.y, label=name)

ax.legend()
plt.show() 
 


Grapch shows all the clusters and their belonging elements. 

In below code, we change the clusters number and observe divided clusters in a plot.


f = plt.figure(figsize=(8, 6), dpi=80)
f.add_subplot(2, 2, 1)

for i in range(2, 6):
 gm = GaussianMixture(n_components=i).fit(x)
 pred = gm.predict(x)
 df = DataFrame({'x':x[:,0], 'y':x[:,1], 'label':pred})
 groups = df.groupby('label')
 f.add_subplot(2, 2, i-1)
 for name, group in groups:
    plt.scatter(group.x, group.y, label=name, s=8)
    plt.title("Cluster size:" + str(i))
    plt.legend()

plt.tight_layout()        
plt.show()  




   In this tutorial, we've briefly learned how to cluster data with the Gaussian Mixture model in Python. The source code is listed below.


Source code listing

 
from sklearn.mixture import GaussianMixture
from sklearn.datasets.samples_generator import make_blobs
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from numpy import random 
from pandas import DataFrame

random.seed(234)
x, _ = make_blobs(n_samples=330, centers=5, cluster_std=1.84)
plt.figure(figsize=(8, 6))
plt.scatter(x[:,0], x[:,1])
plt.show()

gm = GaussianMixture(n_components=5).fit(x)
centers = gm.means_
print(centers)

plt.figure(figsize=(8, 6))
plt.scatter(x[:,0], x[:,1], label="data")
plt.scatter(centers[:,0], centers[:,1],c='r', label="centers")
plt.legend()
plt.show()


pred = gm.predict(x)

df = DataFrame({'x':x[:,0], 'y':x[:,1], 'label':pred})
groups = df.groupby('label')

ig, ax = plt.subplots(figsize=(8, 6))
for name, group in groups:
    ax.scatter(group.x, group.y, label=name)

ax.legend()
plt.show()


f = plt.figure(figsize=(8, 6), dpi=80)
f.add_subplot(2, 2, 1)

for i in range(2, 6):
 gm = GaussianMixture(n_components=i).fit(x)
 pred = gm.predict(x)
 df = DataFrame({'x':x[:,0], 'y':x[:,1], 'label':pred})
 groups = df.groupby('label')
 f.add_subplot(2, 2, i-1)
 for name, group in groups:
    plt.scatter(group.x, group.y, label=name, s=8)
    plt.title("Cluster size:" + str(i))
    plt.legend()

plt.tight_layout()        
plt.show()  
 


References:

Scikit-learn Gaussian Mixture

2 comments:

  1. Error: No module named 'sklearn.datasets.samples_generator'

    solution:
    https://stackoverflow.com/questions/65898399/no-module-named-sklearn-datasets-samples-generator

    ReplyDelete